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PostPosted: 15 Jul 2012 4:25 am 
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Queen Bee
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http://www.livescience.com/21351-mantle-site-artifacts.html

An X-ray of the iron artifact revealed a maker's mark stamped on it. Research reveals that 16th century Basque artifacts, from a province in northern Spain, have the same mark.

At the Mantle site archaeologists have discovered 200,000 artifacts,

Mantle Site, Wendat (Huron) Ancestral Village
The "Jean-Baptiste Lainé" or Mantle site in the town of Whitchurch–Stouffville, north-east of Toronto, is the largest and most complex ancestral Wendat-Huron village to be excavated in the Lower Great Lakes region to date.[1]

In 2002, a Huron village from the late Precontact Period (i.e., immediately prior to the arrival of Europeans) was discovered during the construction of a new subdivision in Whitchurch–Stouffville along Stouffville Creek, a tributary of West Duffins Creek, on a section of Lot 33, Concession 9.[2] From circa 1500 to 1530 AD, 1500 to 2000 people inhabited the 10.4 acre site. The community was likely created from multiple smaller sites, including the Draper Site, located five kilometres south-east of Mantle in north Pickering


In 2012, archaeologists revealed that they had discovered a forged wrought iron axehead of European origin which had been carefully buried in a long-house at the centre of the village site. It is believed that the axe originated from a Basque whaling station in the Strait of Belle Isle (Newfoundland and Labrador), and was traded into the interior of the continent a century before Europeans began to explore the Great Lakes region "It is the earliest European piece of iron ever found in the North American interior."

Another curious discovery at Mantle is its apparently cosmopolitan nature. The art and pottery at the site show influences from all five nations of the Iroquois to the south in New York State, suggesting extensive contacts and trade.

For instance, among Mantle's discoveries are the earliest European goods ever found in the Great Lakes region of North America, predating the arrival of the first known European explorers by a century. They consist of two European copper beads and a wrought iron object, believed to be part of an ax, which was carefully buried near the center of the settlement.

A maker's mark on the wrought iron object was traced to northern Spain, and the fact that it was made of wrought iron suggests a 16th-century origin. In fact, in the early 16th century Basque fisherman and whalers sailed to the waters off Newfoundland and Labrador. It's believed that it would have been acquired by the aboriginal people there and exchanged up the St. Lawrence River until eventually reaching Mantle.

The people of Mantle, it seems, were on trading relations with the Iroquois of the St. Lawrence.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/10/mantle-site-ancient-new-york-canada-lake-ontario_n_1661911.html

Now how did those European goods get there before the first known Eurpean explorers?
and it wasn't a Viking mark...it was a Basque Mark

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PostPosted: 15 Jul 2012 4:45 am 
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Queen Bee
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Basques were expert fishermen and sailors from the southeast corner of the Bay of Biscay. With the Portuguese, they were early arrivals to Newfoundland's GRAND BANKS. Around 1525 they began WHALING and fishing for COD off Newfoundland, along the north shore of the St Lawrence River from the Strait of Belle Isle to the Saguenay River, and in places where similar conditions attracted such northern marine life. The Basques controlled the fishery along la haute main (northeast coast) for over a century.

Samuel de CHAMPLAIN encountered Basque fishermen during his early voyages and he benefited from their knowledge of the north shore of the St Lawrence. He had close ties with those who came from France, in spite of their protests over the founding of Québec. With Marc LESCARBOT, Champlain described the major Basque settlement at Lesquemin (Les Escoumins, Qué); at Tor Bay (NS) he met an experienced Basque fisherman who had come there every year since 1565. He described the Strait of Belle Isle as an area frequented by Spanish Basques

Five Basque shipwrecks have been located in the area; the earliest, the San Juan, dates from 1565.

On August 15, 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard of Basque origin, and six other students at the University of Paris—Francisco Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, Nicolás Bobadilla from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal—met in Montmartre outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, now Saint Pierre de Montmartre

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